Professional seeking asian

Added: Stephaine Raabe - Date: 30.04.2022 03:49 - Views: 34385 - Clicks: 8522

Professional seeking asian

Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. research has found cultural differences in the frequency of support seeking. Asians and Asian Americans report seeking support from their close others to deal with their stress less often compared to European Americans.

Similarly, other research on professional help seeking has shown that Asians and Asian Americans are less likely than European Americans to seek professional psychological help. studies link this difference to multitude of factors, such as cultural stigma and reliance on informal social networks.

The present research examined another explanation for cultural differences in professional help seeking. We predicted that the observed cultural difference in professional help seeking is an extension of culture-specific interpersonal relationship patterns.

In the present research, undergraduate students in Japan and the United States completed the Inventory of Attitudes toward Seeking Mental Health Services, which measures professional help seeking propensity, psychological openness to acknowledging psychological problems, and indifference to the stigma of seeking professional help.

Professional seeking asian

The showed that Japanese reported greater reluctance to seek professional help compared to Americans. Moreover, the relationship between culture and professional help seeking attitudes was partially mediated by use of social support seeking among close others. The implications of cultural differences in professional help seeking and the relationship between support seeking and professional help seeking are discussed.

Many problems that people experience in contemporary society, such as bullying in school and the workplace, poverty, domestic violence, and abuse, are difficult to cope with by oneself, and help from others may be a necessity. In order to receive assistance from these professionals, the person in need must actively solicit their help.

If people do not seek help, professional helping systems are ineffective regardless of their availability. Much research on professional help seeking suggests that there is a systematic difference among people from different cultural contexts in frequency of help seeking.

For example, people from Asian and Asian American cultural contexts are less willing to seek out professional help than those from European American contexts for reviews, see Mizuno and Ishikuma, ; Hwang, With this in mind, understanding the reasons underlying why individuals decide to seek or not seek professional help becomes an important issue to consider, with the goal of both investigating the effectiveness of such help and of maximizing the benefit that people from all cultural experiences can draw from these social structural resources, when and if these resources may be beneficial.

In the present research, we examine how cultural differences in relational patterns in everyday social interactions, such as social support seeking, are associated with attitudes toward seeking professional help. Cultural norms may be a determining factor in attitudes toward seeking professional help. It is reasonable to assume that culture influences several aspects of professional help seeking, including recognition and attribution of problems, decision making for help seeking, and evaluation of various coping resources Cauce et al.

In particular, differences in relational patterns across cultures have implications for seeking help from professionals. Collectivistic cultures, such as East Asia, emphasize interdependence, and social harmony within the group, with each individual viewed as fundamentally interconnected in a larger social unit Markus and Kitayama, By contrast, individualistic cultures, such as the United States, emphasize independence, distinguishing the individual as autonomous and distinct from others, with personal motives superseding group interests Kwan et al.

These cultural differences in the relative focus of individual autonomy versus connection to others have consequences for appraisal of different coping strategies and resources, as we will discuss in the following sections. Cultural values and attitudes might influence help seeking propensity HSP in two ways, as is the case with all socio-cultural learning.

For instance, among Asian Americans, a passive attitude toward help seeking might be caused by either socializing to their heritage cultural values that inhibit help seeking, related to enculturation, or non-identification with the mainstream American cultural values which promote help seeking, related to acculturation Kim, However, it is not clear what aspects of their heritage cultural shaping could inhibit help seeking.

Examining this issue in detail will further understanding and improvement of negative attitudes toward help seeking among people from Asian and Asian American cultural contexts.

Professional seeking asian

The cultural shaping of attitudes toward professional help seeking involves several aspects. In research, concern for the stigma surrounding professional help seeking has been examined as an important factor in avoidance of professional help use e. Research has found families from East Asian heritage cultural backgrounds prefer to deal with issues related to mental illness themselves instead of looking toward mental health professionals for assistance, out of concern for stigma related to mental illness Lin et al.

Research has consistently shown that family plays a large role in care and treatment of family members among Asian Americans Lin et al.

Professional seeking asian

However, professional help seeking on the individual level may not be related to support from family sources. In fact, other research has found that family support was not predictive of help seeking for emotional distress among Chinese Americans, such that low support from the family was not related to more frequent professional help seeking Abe-Kim et al.

Taken together, while the family is a potential source of support, low levels of professional help seeking commonly found among people who engage in Asian and Asian American cultural contexts may not necessarily be due to higher levels of family support. Although the cultural stigma factor has been the focus of much research on professional help seeking, other factors are also of note. Another facet of attitudes toward professional help seeking may be psychological openness POor internalized pressure for self-responsibility and for not acknowledging psychological problems openly Root, ; Masuda et al.

In many Asian cultural contexts seeking help from an out-group source such as mental health professionals might itself become a problem by causing discord within the in-group. One line of research evaluated the level of family involvement with the treatment of schizophrenic patients, and found that family members of Asian American patients were more intimately involved in the treatment process than Caucasians i. These findings suggest that, in Asian cultural contexts, the act of seeking help from professionals might be viewed as involving both the individual and the in-group. Finally, in collectivistic cultures i.

This could be seen as a threat to in-group relational functioning. Therefore, people from collectivistic cultures might to be more reluctant to seek professional help than people from individualistic cultures Root, In addition to other important factors in propensity for help seeking, such as stigma concerns, we propose another potential explanatory influence that may also independently contribute to variation in HSP.

This factor, which we explore in more detail in the current research, is attitudes toward everyday interpersonal support seeking, as part of more general relational norms about seeking help. While a great deal of research has looked at cultural influences in attitudes toward professional help seeking and related concerns, it may also be helpful to consider professional help seeking as an extension of help sought by close others, such as family and friends. When confronting a problem, people can seek and get help from not only professionals but also their social networks.

studies suggest that Asians and Asian Americans are more reluctant than European Americans to seek explicit social support as a coping strategy for dealing with stress Taylor et al. Additionally, when primed to think of the groups they are close to, Asian Americans rated support seeking as less helpful, while European Americans were unaffected by the prime, suggesting that the perceived utility of support seeking may be related to relational norms and attitudes toward seeking support Kim et al. This research suggests that, compared with European Americans, those who are from Asian cultural contexts are more reluctant to seek help and support in general, and this tendency may be applicable to attitudes toward professional help seeking.

Of course, professional help differs in several ways from social support from families and friends. Although arranging a visit to a professional provider may be more difficult Cortina, ; Rickwood et al. Nevertheless, even relationships with clinical professionals are social relationships, and thus, how and why people choose to seek or not to seek professional help could be governed under similar reasons as how and why people choose to seek or not to seek social support from their close others.

For example, seeking help from a professional and seeking help from close others may both be considered to be potentially disruptive to the group in Asian cultural contexts, as research has found these concerns are a factor in both support seeking and professional help seeking. Thus, attitudes toward social support seeking may be related to attitudes toward seeking professional help, and both attitudes may be shaped by cultural influences on relational patterns about seeking help from others.

research has shown less use of both social support seeking and professional help seeking among Asians compared to North Americans. These lines of research have remained largely separate, however, although they may stem from the same cultural values. The purpose of the present research is to examine a potential process, social support seeking from friends and family, which may explain cultural differences in attitudes toward help seeking from professional help providers.

In the current research, comparing participants from Japanese and the U. We hypothesize that Japanese participants will report less willingness to use professional help seeking, compared to U. We also look at the role of indifference to stigma IS of seeking professional help in the relationship between support seeking and professional help seeking attitudes.

The Japanese students were all native Japanese.

Professional seeking asian

The European American students self-identified as such. All three schools provide free counseling services to enrolled students. Participants in both countries were located in medium-sized cities at a similar distance to larger cities Tokyo and Los Angeles, respectively. Materials were translated from English to Japanese by a bilingual Japanese and English speaker, and checked for accuracy by two additional bilingual Japanese-English speakers.

Participants first filled out the Brief COPE, where they described what they usually do to cope when they experience stressful events.

Professional seeking asian

Participants responded using a five-point scale with 1 indicating not at all and 5 indicating very much. In this study, we focus on two subscales, emotional support, e. This scale was also used in research on culture and social support seeking which revealed cultural differences in support seeking tendencies Taylor et al.

This scale includes 24 items, and participants indicated their agreement with each statement on a 1 disagree to 5 agree scale. The first subscale is HSP, or the extent to which individuals believe they are willing and able to seek professional psychological help. The second subscale is PO, or the extent to which individuals are open to acknowledging psychological problems and to the possibility of seeking professional help for them.

The third subscale is IS, or the extent to which individuals are not concerned about what various important others might think should they find out that the individual was seeking professional help for psychological problems. Factor analysis principal factor method, promax rotation on the IASMHS indicated validation of the original model for two of the three factors all items over 0.

Means of the subscale items were used as subscale scores. Therefore, PO was not used as a factor in subsequent analyses. Gender was included in analyses as research on professional help seeking has found differences among men and women in their willingness to seek help e. These suggest that the Japanese are more reluctant than Americans to seek support from professionals, reporting less propensity for help seeking and less IS, mirroring found in research. We initially examined emotional and instrumental support separately, but both components yielded similar.

Thus, we report the using the support composite. These cultural differences in support seeking are consistent with research, and these ificant differences showed patterns similar to those for professional support seeking, although an unexpected interaction emerged. To examine support seeking and IS as simultaneous mediators of culture and professional HSP, a series of bootstrapping analyses with bias-corrected confidence estimates were conducted using the methods described by Preacher and Hayes

Professional seeking asian

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Factors influencing attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help among South Asian students in Britain