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Metrics details. An inferential cross-sectional study de, in which the prevalence of a condition among an identified population is determined, was used. Using convenience sampling, respondents who meet certain practical criteria and are available and willing to participate were sampled. The study indicates that more females than males had ever been attended to by a male nurse for the period considered by the study, and females described male nurses as polite and courteous and were comfortable with their treatment. The finding disproves assertions on the negative effect of religion on male nurses.
It is recommended that public awareness be created on the role of male nurses in the healthcare delivery system to promote acceptance of gender diversity in the nursing profession. Peer Review reports. Nursing until the nineteenth century was not an activity thought to demand skill, training or commanded respect [ 1 ]. Gail p. During the mid-nineteenth century, men were conceptualised as individuals whose thorny hands were detrimental to caring and as such, were classified unfit to be nurses [ 3 ].
Moreover, advances in medical techniques through the discovery and application of anaesthetics and antiseptic surgery [ 15 ], coupled with the establishment of nursing training institutions during the middle and late nineteenth century produced a preponderance of females who were accepted as medical officers in various hospitals [ 6 ].
Currently, nursing continues to be largely a female dominated profession [ 7 ]. Even though the of registered nurses and nursing training schools have increased globally, coupled with attempts made at increasing the of individuals in the nursing profession [ 8 ], the percentage of men remains underrepresented [ 910 ]. Besides these factors, the cultural orientation of society about the unsuitability of males to provide care [ 2122 ] and the negative portrayal of male nurses by the media [ 18 ] tend to limit the presence of males in the nursing profession.
These factors, in addition to the aforementioned, potentially impact the psychological orientation of male nurses who report high degrees of anxiety and tension on the job and are more likely to leave the profession early in comparison to their female counterparts [ 232425 ]. Instances where these factors are absent, differential treatment are meted out to male nurses.
Specifically, male nurses are marginalised, and prevented from performing certain personal and intimate care procedures such as electrocardiograms, catheterization and Papanicolaou smears, for female patients, as well as working in the labour and delivery units [ 1020 ]-p. In Ghana, nursing as a profession was introduced as a subset of colonialism and the introduction of Christianity in the nineteenth century [ 28 ].
The people of Ghana, then Gold Coast, had trouble accepting the profession especially on the part of women owing to cultural differences. However, as the years went by, women became more welcoming to the professions nursing and midwifery and therefore got trained [ 28 ]. At the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, nurses were employed from to The gender imbalance that exist in nursing is a problem as it gives no regard to diversity [ 3233 ]. Though men in recent times have considered nursing as a preferred occupation for various reasons [ 3435 ], mixed feelings continue to persist about patients experiences on services provided by male nurses.
Whereas in some studies, patients appraised their satisfaction with male nurses [ 143637 ], others considered caring as an attribute of female nurses, which could imply a non-caring image of male nurses [ 3839 ]. The opinion of male and female patients regarding male nurses as caregivers is also reported. The underlying theory adapted for this study is the middle-range theory by Swanson [ 45 ]. In this theory, Swanson described the prevailing factors or actions which helps to foster positive patient outcomes [ 4546 ], restores [ 47 ] and unifies both patient and nurse [ 48 ] relationship.
The middle-range theory is made up of five levels of care which helps to guide the actions of nurses, in which Level 1 examines the characteristics of caring persons; level II: commitment to providing caring; level III: the conditions that enhances or diminishes the likelihood of care being implemented by the interaction of the following variables nurse, patient and organization ; Level IV summarizes caring actions and level V are the consequences of caring [ 52 ].
This can be summarised as follows: knowing, being with, doing for, enabling and maintaining belief.
Despite the use of these levels in nursing care studies, little attention was given to the incorporation of Level III in these studies [ 13 ]. This study builds on level III of the middle-range theory as used by Adeyemi-Adelanwa and colleagues [ 13 ] by assessing the factors which enhances or diminishes the likelihood of care provided by male nurses.
Respondents demographic characteristics were used as predictors or independent factors for assessing their preference and satisfaction with male nursing care. It is important to indicate that preference and satisfaction are mutually inclusive and as such, using the same predictors has positive implication on the study findings.
KATH doubles as a major referral hospital serving mostly the regions in the northern part of Ghana [ 53 ]. The specific wards where the research was carried out were C1 female wardC2 male wardD3 male ward and D5 female ward of the surgical and medical wards respectively. C1 and C2 are on the first and second floor of the C-block respectively, whereas D3 and D5 are on the second and fourth floor of the D-block respectively.
The blocks are linked by corridors. Each ward has a bed capacity of thirty-six An inferential cross sectional study de, in which data were collected at a single point in time was used. The de preference was necessitated by the need to identify the prevalence of a condition, disease or a phenomenon among an identified population [ 545556 ]. In this case, prevalence looks at the percentage of the population who prefer and are satisfied with nursing care provided by male nurses. A context based data on the opinion, preference and satisfaction of patients with nursing care provided by male nurses was used in this study.
Data were collected within two weeks after the ethical approval on 20th March The need to identify respondents who meet certain practical criteria, are within accessible geographical proximity, and are available and willing to participate in the study, led to the use of convenience sampling [ 5859 ]. The sampling technique has been proven effective in health-related studies [ 60 ].
The technique is guided by the principle of homogeneity and as such, its are not different from a study which made use of random sampling techniques [ 61 ]: it ensures that knowledge gained is representative of the population [ 62 ]. Going by this technique, patients from the medical and surgical wards of KATH who were eighteen 18 years and above and had been admitted at least twenty-four 24 hours or more prior to the study were sampled for inclusion [ 63 ].
The draw back to this sampling technique is the presence of outliers and biases in the sampling procedure which could potentially undermine the representativeness of the study findings [ 6465 ]. This drawback was addressed by means of approaching all respondents who had been admitted in the aforementioned wards and only those who agreed to participate in the study were included. This approach was used as a criteria for checking biases and outliers since controlling all factors which could result in biases or outliers was neither possible in practice nor wise [ 66 ].
Perception or opinion as used in this study reflects the reaction and disposition of patients during the care process. The variables included: politeness and courtesy of the male nurse, professional conduct of the male nurse, skilful discharge of duties by male nurse, male nurse creating a friendly atmosphere and answering all your questions, comfortable with receiving care from a male nurse and level of cooperation with the various duties carried out by the male nurse.
The study instrument established an alpha value of 0.
The statistical parameters; Hosmer-Lemeshow test and Nagelkerke R Square, were used to judge the model fit of the analysis. Besides this, oral consent were sought from the study participants after presenting an introductory letter from the Department of Nursing, KNUST, which detailed the essence of the study.
Only participants who agreed to participate in the study were included. Confidentiality and anonymity of response were strictly adhered to; no names were recorded on the questionnaires and there was no alteration of the information obtained. Besides age, religious beliefs and ethnic groups, there was statistically ificant differences between the male and female respondents based on the Pearson Chi-Squared test conducted. The mean ranks for each group indicates the perceptual difference between the male and female patients.
Primarily, more females had been attended to by male nurses than their male counterparts during the hospital visits. The female patients had higher mean ranks than males in the following variables: male nurses as polite and courteous, skilful with their craft and provided a comforting atmosphere when taking care of their patients.
However, the male patients scored higher mean ranks than the females regarding the professional conduct and cooperation with of male nurses. Despite these differences in mean score, just two opinion variables: politeness and courtesy and comfortability with male nurses, were statistically ificant between the male and female patients. Particularly, those who were single had an The predictive values explain roughly Participants who were single and those who professed Islamic beliefs had lesser and higher odds, respectively, of preferring male nurses on any visit to the hospital.
Despite the small representation of Islamic patients in comparison to the other religious faiths, our study finding defeats earlier assertions on the prejudice against male nurses by patients who professed Islamic beliefs [ 69 ]. For instance, most Muslim women shy away from maternal health services due to their religious obligation to maintain bodily sanctity and avoid exposing their body to male caregivers [ 70 ].
Thus, the positive acceptance of male nurses in our study could imply a positive outlook and professional conduct on the part of male nurses and the general acceptance of male nurses, cultural heterogeneity and the influence of the sampled wards in the study settings among the study participants. This development would help avert instances where older adults patients might refuse treatment from male nurses altogether. Patients general orientation with male nursing care was irrespective of whether the type of care provided were intimate care or not, as reported elsewhere [ 7980 ].
This means that, some of the respondents positively appraised the quality of care provided by male nurses during hospital visits. In effect, though participants were rarely bothered about the gender of the nurses, they took cognizance of the attitude displayed by these nurses when they sought healthcare.
Between the male and female divide, although more males than females participated in the study, statistically, more females had been attended to by male nurses, perceived, and described male nurses as polite and courteous and were comfortable with receiving care from a male nurse Table 2. Even though men are not seen and described as natural caregivers, they seem to be doing well in the nursing profession considering the positive perception of patients towards them.
Thus, their actions and activities during practice are key to their sustenance and continuance in the profession [ 2425343839 ].
Gradually, male nurses will be openly accepted by patients and will flourish in an environment where they will not be stressed and forced to re faster than their female counterpart. This assertion is premised on the fact that negative perception of male nurses by patients eventually affects the care they receive from them [ 83 ] and affects nurse-patient relationship [ 84 ]. Some limitations however are noted.
ificantly too, though this study argued on the homogeneity of the study sample, as well as the generalisability of the study findings, it ought to be considered with caution due to the vulnerability of convenience sampling to some hidden biases. Although marital status, religious affiliation and educational level, were just the ificant predictors of their preference for, and satisfaction with male nursing care, the effect of the other variables should not be overlooked.Seeking male nurse
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The Male Nurse: Benefits and Percentages of Men in Nursing